Volume 3, Issue 6-2, December 2014, Page: 54-65
Assessment of Some Heavy Metals Distribution and their Possible Human Health Risks : A Case Study of Parts of Langtang South Area, Middle Benue Trough, Nigeria
Lar Uriah, Department of Geology, University of Jos, P.M.B. 3084, Jos, Nigeria
Yenne Ezekiel, Department of Geology, University of Jos, P.M.B. 3084, Jos, Nigeria
Ozoji Toochukwu, Department of Geology and Mining, Ibrahim Babangida University Lappai, Niger State, Nigeria
Jibo Jesse, Department of Geology, University of Jos, P.M.B. 3084, Jos, Nigeria
Received: Sep. 29, 2014;       Accepted: Oct. 5, 2014;       Published: Dec. 25, 2014
DOI: 10.11648/j.ajep.s.2014030602.18      View  2531      Downloads  122
An investigation on the distribution of heavy metals in some parts of Langtang South area located within the middle Benue Trough of Nigeria was carried out with the aim of determining their concentration levels for principally environmental assessment and for future mineral exploration studies. The area is characterized by four (4) lithologic formations; Asu River Group, Awe formation, Keana formation and Lafia formation. The area is endowed with abundant Pb-ZnS and BaSO4 mineralizations. Geochemical analysis of soil samples collected from the area revealed the following heavy metal concentrations; Co = 0.022 - 30.09ppm; Cr = up to 21.64ppm; Ni = 0.02 - 50.67ppm; Cu = 0.39 - 63.77ppm; Zn = 0.04 - 3468ppm; As = up to 465.7ppm; Pb = 0.012 - 9322ppm, Cd = up to 17.74ppm. It is also observed that Co, Cr, Zn, As, Cd, Ni and Cu have relatively low spatial distribution pattern in Agri and Bolya villages as well as its surroundings while high spatial distribution pattern of these elements are observed in Jigawa ba da Goshi. However, Pb is observed to have high spatial distribution pattern in almost all northern parts of the mapped area including Agri, Jigawa ba da Goshi and Bolya villages. The concentrations of heavy metals in water samples decreases in the order Cu(223μg/l) > As(75.3μg/l) > Co(28μg/l) > Ni(27.8μg/l) > Pb(14.3μg/l) > Cr(6.8μg/l) > Zn(2.008μg/l ) > Cd(1μg/l) and these are greater than the recommended no-effect values in water. The calculated daily intake of metal showed that the heavy metals portent potential human health risks in decreasing order of Cu> As >Cd. Health risk index found for these heavy metals was less than one suggesting that the consumption of such waters is safe and therefore pose no human health risks. However, the cumulative intake of such heavy metals over a long period of time may cause serious human health problems.
Heavy Metals, Health Risks, Middle Benue Trough, Langtang South
To cite this article
Lar Uriah, Yenne Ezekiel, Ozoji Toochukwu, Jibo Jesse, Assessment of Some Heavy Metals Distribution and their Possible Human Health Risks : A Case Study of Parts of Langtang South Area, Middle Benue Trough, Nigeria, American Journal of Environmental Protection. Special Issue:Integrating Earth Materials, Diet, Water and Human Health. Vol. 3, No. 6-2, 2014, pp. 54-65. doi: 10.11648/j.ajep.s.2014030602.18
Salminen, R., Gregorauskienė, V., 2000. Considerations regarding the definition of a geochemical baseline of elements in the surficial materials in areas differing in basic geology. Applied Geochemistry, 15, 647-653.
Johnson, C.C., Breward, N., Ander, E.L., Ault, L., 2005. G-BASE: baseline geochemical mapping of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. Geochemistry: Exploration, Environment Analysis, 5, 347-357.
Lar, U.A., Ngozi-Chika, C. S. and Ashano, E. C., 2013. Human Exposure To Lead And Other Potentially Harmful Elements Associated With Galena Mining At New Zurak, Central Nigeria. Journal of African Earth Science 2(2).
Madrid R, Biasioli M., Ajmone-Marsan F. 2008. Availiability and Bioaccessibility of metals in fine particles of some urban soils. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 55,21.
Nguyenh.I., Braun m., Szalokj I., Baeyens W., Van Grieken R., Leer Markers M. , 2008. Tracing the Metal Pollution History of the Tisza River Through the Analysis of a Sediment Depth Profile. Water Air Soil Pollut.doi: 10.1007/S11270-008-9898-2.
Khan K., Yonglong L., Hizbullah K., Zakir S., Sardar K.L, Akbar A. K, Luo W., Tieyu W. 2013 :Health risks associated with heavy metals in the drinking water of Swat, northern Pakistan. Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China. Nuclear Institute for Food and Agriculture, Tarnab, Peshawar, Pakistan. 21 May 2013.
Jolly, Y.N, Islam A., and Akkat S. 2013. Transfer of metals from soil to vegetables and possible health risks assessment. SpringerPlus 2013, 2:385
Prica M, Dalmacua B., Roncevic S., Kravtar D., Becelic M., 2008. A comparison of sediment quality results with acid volatile sulfide (AVS) and simultaneously extracted metals (SEM) ratio in Vojvodina (Serbia) sediments. Sci.Total Environ. 389, 235, 2008.
Sanja M. S, Dragana S. D, Saczana S. T., 2011. Geochemical and Statistical Methods in the Evaluation of Trace Elements Contamination: an Application on Canal Sediments. Polish J. of Environ. Stud. Vol. 20, No. 1 187-199
Shah M T, Ara J, Muhammad S, Khan S, Tariq S, 2012. Health risk assessment via surface water and sub-surface water consumption in the mafic and ultramafic terrain, Mohmand agency, northern Pakistan. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 118: 60–67.
Offodile, M. E. 1976. The Geology of the Middle Benue, Nigeria, Palecontological Institution of the University of Uppsala. Special Vol. 4.
Benkhlil, J. M. 1986. Structure et Evolution Geodynamic du basin Inter Continemtale de la Benue. Nigeria. Thesis de Dotorat de-Etat University of Nice.
Offodile, M. E. and Reyment, R. A. 1977. Stratigraphy of the Keana-Awe Area of the Middle Benue Region of Nigeria. Bull. Geol. Inst.. university of Uppsala, No. 7, Pp. 37-66.
Rupert, L.H.; Neil, B.; Scott, D.Y.; Neil, M.J.C.; Andrew, M.T.; Ann, M.M. 2004. Assessing potential risk of heavy metal exposure from consumption of home-produced vegetables by urban populations. Environ. Health Persp., 112:215–21.
Muhammad S, Shah M T, Khan S, 2010. Arsenic health risk assessment in drinking water and source apportionment using multivariate statistical techniques in Kohistan region,northern Pakistan. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 48(10): 2855–2864.
Muhammad S, Shah M T, Khan S, 2011. Health risk assessment of heavy metals and their source apportionment in drinking water of Kohistan region, northern Pakistan. Microchemical Journal, 98(2): 334–343.
WHO, 2008. Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality 3rd edition, Vol.1, Recommendations. World Health Organisation, Geneva.
Browse journals by subject